Work Package 1: Descriptive Representation


Overview
WP1 studies the descriptive representation of citizens of immigrant origin (CIO). We define CIOs as individuals who either were born abroad as foreign nationals and who (might) have, subsequently, acquired the citizenship of the country in question (1st generation) or have/had one parent of foreign nationality at birth (2ndgeneration). Our definition of descriptive representation is the ‘presence’ (Phillips) of such persons in the elected legislative bodies of Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain both at the national and, where appropriate, regional levels. It is important to note that we are collecting data on all MPs, not merely those of immigrant origin. The window of observation is 1990 until the end of the latest completed legislative period for the national level and the latest completed legislative period for the regional parliaments. In other words, the PATHWAYS data will allow longitudinal analyses for the national level as well as cross-sectional and multi-level analyses for the national and regional levels. Our main goal is to provide an overview of the social and political profile of MPs, with a particular focus on identifying MPs of immigrant origin. Three main research questions will be addressed: How many CIOs gained elected office in national and regional assemblies? Are certain groups of CIOs better represented than others (on the basis of gender, national ancestry, ethnicity, etc.)? How do CIO elected representatives differ from other MPs in terms of professional background and career? National level data is being collected for all MPs (including non-CIOs) elected in the Lower Chamber for all legislative terms since 1990. Additionally, regional data is being collected, including all MPs from the most recent term that ended before the start of the data collection in each region.
Key Indicators


Key Variables Establishing Immigrant Origin

• MP born in country of parliament?
• In which country was the MP born?
• In which world region was the MP born?
• If born the MP was born in the country, in which region was s/he born?
• If MP not born in country, year when did s/he move to country
• Born as a national citizen of the country of parliament?
• Of which country was the MP a national at birth?
• Year in which s/he was naturalized as a citizen
• Mother born in country of parliament?
• In which country was the mother born?
• In which world region was the mother born?
• Was the MP’s mother born as a national of the country of parliament?
• Mother’s nationality at birth
• Father born in country of parliament?
• In which country was the father born?
• In which world region was the father born?
• Was the MP’s father born as a national of the country of parliament?
• Father’s nationality at birth

Variables Potentially Related to Discrimination

• Is the MP a native speaker of an/the ‘official’ country language?
• Can the MP be perceived by voters as a member of an ‘identifiable’ minority?
• Does the MP self-identify as a member of an ethnic minority?
• Which ethnic minority/minorities identifies with?
• Does the MP self-identify as a member of a certain religion?
• Which religion, if any, does the MP identify with?

Key Socio-Demographic Variables

• Sex of MP
• Year of birth
• Highest level of education achieved when elected
• Last occupation/profession of the MP before first ever becoming an MP
• Occupation sector when first elected
• Current occupation/profession of the MP

Key Electoral and Parliamentary Tenure Variables

• Number of times the MP has been previously elected to parliament in the present district
• Type of electoral district
• Number of times MP has been previously elected to parliament at the relevant tier
• MP elected for the first time in current term
• Number of times the MP has been elected to parliament
• Number of times the MP has taken up the seat in parliament after elected
• Year when the MP was first elected to national/regional Parliament
• Total number of years spent in national/regional Parliament as MP, prior to this legislature (seniority)
• When was the MP elected for the last time prior to this legislature?
• Was the MP elected to chamber from inauguration or was s/he a replacement of someone who resigned or passed away?
• Did MP stay continuously with no interruptions from the moment of taking up the seat until the end of the legislative term?
• If MP did not serve a full legislative term from beginning to end, how many months did the MP serve?
• If MP left seat at some point, did s/he came back to reclaim the/a seat?
• For countries with ranked lists by party (whether blocked or non-blocked), position in party list
• For countries with preferential voting, rank position in which MP was elected in district (if applicable)
• If double candidacy in another tier is possible, does that apply to MP? Would the MP have been elected also in other tier?
• Did MP win seat as incumbent, or as contender?
• Parliamentary group the MP joined at the beginning of his/her term
• Parliamentary group the MP joined at the end of his/her term
• Full name of party or list in which elected

Party Career and Committee Membership Variables

• Year in which the MP joined the party for which s/he was elected in the relevant legislative term
• Highest position within the party when elected in this legislative term
• Did the MP changed parties during the legislative term?
• Has the MP ever been a local councillor or mayor prior to, or while, being elected an MP this legislative term?
• Total number of years in the local council as a mayor and/or councillor
• Has the MP ever a member of the regional parliament prior to being elected a national MP this legislative term?
• Number of years in the regional parliament prior to this legislature
• Has the MP ever been a member of the national parliament prior to being elected a regional MP this legislative term?
• Number of years in the regional parliament prior to this legislature
• Has the MP ever been a member of the European Parliament prior to being elected as a regional or national MP this legislative term?
• Number of years as a member of the EP prior to this legislature
• Did the MP serve as a national cabinet minister during this legislative term?
• For how many months did the MP serve as national cabinet minister during this legislative term?
• Did the MP simultaneously serve as a regional cabinet minister/councillor?
• For how many months did the MP simultaneously serve as regional cabinet minister during this legislative term?
• Has the MP previously served as a national cabinet minister?
• For how many months did the MP previously serve as national cabinet minister in the past?
• Has the MP previously served as a regional cabinet minister?
• For how many months did the MP previously serve as regional cabinet minister in the past?
• Was the MP a member of another political party before joining the party for which elected in this legislative term?
• Number of years of formal affiliation to the previous party
• Year in which the MP joined a political party for the first time
• Was the MP a member of a committee at any point in the legislative term?
• Total number of parliamentary committees in which the MP was a member during this legislative term
• Which committee joined for longest period in this term? (first membership)
• Role or position in committee 1
• Total number of months as a member of committee 1 during the legislative term
• Was the MP a member of this committee during a prior legislative term?
• Type of committee for committee 1
• Relevance committee 1
• Immigration related committee 1
• Which committee joined in highest position in this term? (second membership)
• Role or position in committee 2
• Total number of months as a member of committee 2 during the legislative term
• Was the MP a member of this committee during a prior legislative term?
• Type of committee for committee 2
• Relevance committee 2
• Immigration related committee 2
• Names of all other committees that the MP joined during legislative term
• Does the MP mention membership of any all-party group, friendship group or issue group in the personal (parliamentary) website?
• Has the MP served during this term as Chair/ Speaker / President of the Chamber?
• Has the MP served during this term as Deputy Chair/ Deputy Speaker / Deputy President of the Chamber?
• Has the MP served during this term as a member of the political administration/management team of the Chamber?
• Has the MP served during this term as a member of the parliamentary party leadership group? E.g. parliamentary party leader, (deputy) spokesperson for plenary debates, whip or equivalent role


Work Package 2: Substantive Representation


Overview
WP2 deals with substantive representation, with a strong focus on parliamentary speeches and parliamentary questions on the floors of national and sub-national parliaments. By substantive representation we mean ‘acting in the interest of the represented, in a manner responsive to them’ (Pitkin). WP2 addresses research questions such as: do CIO MPs make different use of legislative instruments compared with non-CIO MPs? Are MPs of immigrant origin more likely than other MPs to deliver speeches or table parliamentary questions on issues relating to immigration? How is the behaviour of MPs of immigrant origin influenced by the socio-demographic composition of their constituencies, their seniority in their parties and in the parliament? To what extent, and in what way, do parliamentary parties make use of the expertise MPs of immigrant origin bring to their office? In WP2 we collect data two types of activity in the legislature:
a) We compile a text corpus on parliamentary speeches for all MPs of immigrant origin plus a matched sample of other MPs. This will provide us withrich and textured information on key aspects of substantive representation on the floor of the chamber. Debates are important because they will allow us to analyse justifications for legislation and the framing of issues by MPs. They also provide enough text to analyse the positions of the parties using automated procedures (in addition to their manifestos).
b) Additionally, we gather a text corpus on parliamentary questions (PQs) for written as well as for oral answer, a device MPs use frequently not only to extract information but also to send signals to their constituents,fellow party members, interest groups and the media.
c) Appropriate dictionaries for comparative analyses of texts.
Key Indicators
For each item of text (speeches or questions) we will record the following information:

• Original text of speech/question
• Pre-processed text of speech/question
• Identity of the legislature in question
• Identity of the MP delivering the speech or tabling the question (this will allow to connect the textual data to other contextual data collected for the project)
• Date
• Policy area (using codes from the Comparative Agendas Project)


Work Package 3.1: Socio-demographic and settlement patterns


Overview
WP 3.1 provides a general description of the population in each of the selected countries (wherever possible) at the level of electoral districts, including socio-demographic indicators on size, demographic composition, spatial concentration and socio-economic composition. These contextual measures serve as background information for the whole project, and they can be used for substantive analyses of the data gathered in other work packages. Our research agenda will deal, for example, with the impact of socio-economic structure for candidate selection, electoral results and the legislative behaviour of MPs. This WP uses data from national and international official sources as well as surveys. Using international sources, for example, EUROSTAT, allows us to standardize data collection processes, which, in turn, guarantees cross-sectional and cross-time comparability.
Key Indicators
Size of the immigrant population

• Population
• Foreign Born
• Foreign Nationals
>Foreign nationals: Largest group
>Foreign nationals: Second-largest group
>Foreign nationals: Third-largest group
• Ethnic Minorities
• Migration Background
• Foreign born: From former colonies
• Foreign nationals: From former colonies
• Ethnic minorities: From former colonies
• Migration background: From former colonies
• Foreign born: From Muslim countries
• Foreign nationals: From Muslim countries
• Ethnic minorities: From Muslim countries
• Migration background: From Muslim countries
• Foreign nationals: Applications for naturalisations
• Foreign nationals: Naturalisations

Demographic composition of the immigrant population (clustered by age groups)

• Sex
• Religion

Socio-economic composition of the immigrant population

• Education
• Foreign Born: Average Income and Education
• Foreign Nationals: Average Income and Education
• Ethnic Minorities: Average Income and Education
• Working: Population
• Unemployed: Population
• Working: Foreign Born
• Unemployed: Foreign Born
• Working: Foreign nationals
• Unemployed: Foreign Nationals
• Working: Ethnic Minorities
• Unemployed: Ethnic Minorities
• Working: Migration Background
• Unemployed: Migration Background

Electoral districts of national parliaments
Electoral districts of sub-national parliaments


Work Package 3.2: Political Parties and Party Systems


Overview
WP3.2 collects contextual information about the internal organization of political parties. Specifically, we are interested in exploring how organizational features shape the level and nature of political representation of CIOs. Our aim is to understand the incentives, or lack thereof, for the inclusion of CIOs in party ranks. This data collection will allow us to answer questions such as: How do candidate selection methods employed by the various political parties affect CIOs’ chances of securing nomination, a necessary condition of getting elected? Do parties that make more determined ‘organizational’ efforts to recruit members and candidates from minority groups more effective in facilitating the election of candidates of immigrant origin?
Key Indicators
Basic information about party in parliament

• Number of MPs elected in a given legislative perio
• Number of MPs elected in the previous legislative period
• Name of the parliamentary group in which the party is included

Existence of CIOs quotas

• Existence of quotas for immigrants and ethnic minorities in national electoral lists
• Existence of quotas for immigrants and ethnic minorities in national party directive bodies
• Existence of quotas in the national executive committee
• Existence of quotas in the national executive

The internal rules for candidate (national MPs) selection for elected office

• Who can present himself or herself as a candidate
• Inclusiveness of the selectorate
• Decentralization in the selection of national MPs

Procedures for the selection of (national) internal party officials and leaders

• Inclusiveness in the selection of the national party leaders
• Inclusiveness in the selection of the national party executive committees

Parliamentary party groups as gatekeepers

• Parliamentary party groups turnover at the national and regional levels

Main Features of the Party System

• Effective Number of Parliamentary Parties
• Fractionalization
• Votes gained by radical right & anti-immigrant parties (%)
• Votes obtained by each party in current legislative term (%)
• Vote obtained by each party in previous term (%)


Work Package 3.3: Electoral Systems


Overview
WP3.3 provides contextual information on electoral systems at the national and regional levels. Additionally, it accounts for the internal heterogeneity in electoral systems by gauging cross-tier organization and effects. Our goal is to understand how electoral statutes provide different incentives for the political participation of CIOs. This WP will allow answering the following research questions: do incentives to cultivate a personal vote shape the electoral connection between CIO MPs and migrant communities? How do electoral rules constrain political parties selection of candidates? Does the ballot structure influence the electoral prospects of CIOs? Our expectation is that electoral systems constrain the political opportunities for the participation of CIOs.
Key Indicators
Key Electoral System Variables

• Number of initially contested tiers
• Overall number of electoral districts: How many initially contested electoral districts were used in total to allocate seats in parliament?
• Can the election be characterised as a snap election?
• Electoral System Type
• Total number of seats in the parliament
• Average district magnitude
• Median district magnitude
• Threshold: What was the legal vote threshold for parties and or alliances of parties?
• What was the maximum threshold?
• Gallagher Index (least squares) of disproportionality

Key initially contested electoral tier variables

• Total number of parliamentary seats allocated with initially contested tier
• Overall number of initially contested electoral districts
• How many rounds of voting can be used at maximum to allocate seats?
• If party lists were applied, did voters face a closed list, an open list, a quasi-list, a flexible list or a latent list?
• If parties provide pre-ordered lists to voters, can voters effectively change the order of candidates?

Key initially contested electoral district variables

• Overall number of eligible voters
• Number of rounds: How many rounds of voting were actually used?
• If preferential voting is possible, what was the minimum number of preference votes that voters were able to cast in this district?
• If preferential voting was possible, what was the maximum number of preference votes that voters were able to cast in this district?
• If voters were able to cast more than one preference vote, was it possible to cast them for candidates of different parties?
• If voters were able to cast more than one preference vote, was it possible to cumulate them?
• If voters were able to cast more than one preference vote, were these votes transferable?
• How many parties won at least one seat in respective district?
• How many candidates were running on party lists in that district, with each list weighted by respective party seat share in that district?
• Did the ballot provide voters with pictures of the candidates?
• Did the ballot indicate names of candidates running in that district?


Work Package 3.3: Integration


Overview
WP3.3 examines models of integration and policies designed to accommodate diversity. We retrieve data on the existence of institutions and consultation bodies that influence the capacity of CIOs to mobilize. Several research questions are addressed. First, how regulated is access to nationality? Are there anti-discrimination laws in place? Are there active policies to foster labour market mobility? Do CIOs have access to particular educational programmes to help them integrate in the society? How are rights to political participation regulated? The answer to these questions will allow us to understand the institutional context in which CIOs operate. Our expectation is that favourable policies and regulations will help CIOs mobilize and engage in political activities.
Key Indicators
Access to Nationality

• Periods of absence allowed prior to acquisition of nationality
• Language requirement
• Citizenship/Integration requirement

Anti-discrimination

• Existence of anti-discrimination law
• Specialised equality agency

Labour Market Mobility

• Immediate access to employment
• Equality of access to education and vocational training, including study grants
• Recognition of academic and professional qualifications acquired outside the EU
• National measures to reduce unemployment
• Measures to further the integration of third-country nationals into the labour market

Family Reunion for Third Country National

• Eligibility for family reunion for legal residents
• Form of pre-departure language measure for family member abroad
• Economic resources requirements
• Maximum length of application procedure
• Costs of application and/or issue of status
• Right to autonomous residence permit for partners and children reaching age of majority
• Access to employment and self-employment

Education

• Access and support to access pre-primary education
• Access to compulsory-age education
• Access and support to access and participate in higher education
• Provision of option (in or outside school) to learn immigrant languages
• Measures (i.e. campaigns, incentives, support) to support bringing migrants into the teacher workforce

Political Participation – Voting Rights

• Registration for voting rights at local elections for EU citizens
• Registration for voting rights at local elections for non-EU citizens
• Registration requirements for voting rights at local elections for EU citizens
• Registration requirements for voting rights at local elections for non-EU citizens
• Right to vote in national elections for EU citizens
• Right to vote in national elections for non-EU citizens
• Right to vote in regional elections for EU citizens
• Right to vote in regional elections for non-EU citizens
• Right to vote in local elections for third country nationals
• Voting right reciprocity agreement in place for local elections
• Right to stand for elections at local level

Integration

• Main responsibility for immigrants’ integration policy
• Right of association
• Membership of and participation in political parties
• Right to create media (newspaper, radio, television)
• Consultation of foreign residents on national level
• Active policy of information at the national level
• Public funding or support of immigrant organisations at the national level
• Public funding or support of immigrant organisations at the regional level


Work Package 4.1: Patterns of Mobilisations: Public Opinion


Overview
WP4.1 provides an overview of the publication opinion on immigration and immigrants. We are interested in attitudinal questions on the consequences of immigration and integration. Specifically, our goal is to capture whether respondents have a liberal or conservative position on the issue. We will retrieve surveys and polls and make use agreement scales on questions such as ‘foreigners exploit our social welfare system’. Additionally, we will also have data on the salience (i.e. importance) of the immigrant and integration issue among the public. These data will allow us to
construct mood measures, which can be seen as longitudinal factor analysis. Individual survey questions could measure different underlying dimensions of immigration policy mood (e.g. mood towards integration, mood towards immigration) and capture which countries are more immigration ‘friendly’.
Key Indicators
• Name of the poll/survey (in original language)
• Date of the last day of fieldwork
• Name of the survey company/pollster who conducted the poll/survey
• Which of the available responses were a liberal response to the question
• Which of the available responses were a neutral response to the question
• Which of the available responses were a conservative response to the question


Work Package 4.2: Pro- and Anti-Immigration Mobilisation


Overview
WP4.2 focuses on the political context in which CIOs are embedded. It aims at answering to two research questions: how favourable and open the context is for CIO political participation? Do migrants self-organize and participate actively in political activities? The WP builds on the assumption that the answer to those questions can be scored along a continuum that extends between a pro-migrant to an anti-migrant end. The WP makes a comparative analysis of the existence, and size, of pro- and anti- migrant political actors. Also, deals with the policy positions on migrant-related issues, as well as with the salience of the topic on the political debate. Finally, the WP focuses on how migrant communities use ethnic press for political mobilization purposes.
Key Indicators
Strength of pro/anti- migrant actors

• Electoral results for pro-immigrant and anti-immigrant parties
• Number of seats obtained by each anti-immigrant and pro-immigrant party in the lower house of the parliament
• Presence of pro/anti-immigrant parties in the executive
• Presence of pro/anti-immigrant parties in the legislature
• Presence of pro/anti-immigrant parties in the opposition

Policy space for pro/anti- migrant mobilisation

• Position of parties on democratic freedoms and rights
• Position of parties on immigration policy
• Policy salience of immigration policy
• Position of parties on integration of immigrants and asylum seekers
• Policy salience of integration of immigrants and asylum seekers

Pro/anti- migrant discourses

• Percentage of words about migration in electoral manifestos

Interventions by immigrants

• Ethnic press that is available online for the main ethnic groups that are represented within the Lower House
• Analysis of press issues that have been released during the 6 months that precede the latest elections